Thursday, August 22, 2019

David Suzuki Essay Example for Free

David Suzuki Essay David Suzuki is an award-winning environmentalist, scientist and broadcaster. He also dabbles in radio and television series that go into detail about the complexities of the natural sciences in an easy and fascinating way. Finish Intro Paragraph – any tips, mother? David Suzuki is first and foremost, a geneticist. He graduated from Amherst College in 1958 with an honors degree in biology. He moved onto graduate school at the University of Chicago with a PhD in Zoology. Suzuki’s first academic position was an assistant professor in Genetics at the University of Alberta. After his assistant practices at Alberta, he moved on to where he now resides, at the University of British Columbia. David Suzuki has been honored with many awards. In 1972, he was awarded the E.W.R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship for being an outstanding research scientist under the age of thirty-five and he held that award for three years straight. He won many academic awards and holds twenty-five honorary degrees in Canada, the United States, and Australia. Suzuki has written fifty-two books, including nineteen children books. He wrote a textbook, in 1976, named An Introduction to Genetic Analysis that is the most widely used genetics textbook in the United States. This book has been translated into many other languages, including Italian, Spanish, Greek, Indonesian, Arabic, French, and German. Suzuki has not only tinkered around in writing, but broadcasting as well. In 1974, he developed and hosted a science program called Quirks and Quarks that was displayed on CBC radio for four years. Since then, he has presented two documentary CBC radio series relating to the environment, named It’s a Matter of Survival and From Naked Ape to Superspecies. His national television debut began with CBC in 1971 when he wrote and hosted his two season series, Suzuki on Science. He created and hosted a number of television specials, and in 1979, he became of host of The Nature of Things with David Suzuki, which rewarded him with numerous awards. He participated in a series, A Planet for the Taking, which won an award from the United Nations. In 2002, he received an award for his broadcasting excellence. David Suzuki is also a world leader in sustainable ecology. He is the recipient of many world-known prizes and medals, and has been granted with the Right Livelihood Award, which is known as the Alternative Nobel Prize. Not only has he received awards and presented series, but also he has co-founded his own Foundation. Suzuki felt as  though he was just â€Å"a messenger telling people about the crisis that is happening† and that he didn’t have any solutions (Suzuki 219). As he was working on making people more aware, he was receiving feedback of people feeling motivated from his words. With this feedback, Suzuki realized that he â€Å"had a responsibility to suggest potential answers† (Suzuki 220). With the help of Tara Cullis, an award-winning writer and former professor at Harvard University, the David Suzuki Foundation was instituted on September 14th, 1990. The goals of the Foundation are to protect the climate, create livable communities, establish environmental rights and justice, transform the economy, connect with nature, and build the community. The David Suzuki Foundation has worked with doctors to fight for clean air, published energy solutions, brought voices from NHL hockey players and Olympic Skiers to advocate for going carbon neutral, helped governments ban pesticides, protected species at risk, researched contaminants in farmed salmon, and worked with chefs to switch to sustainable seafood. The Foundation has even addressed economics, assessing the value of greenbelts (an area which is kept and reserved to ensure that there is open space), farmland, and other ecological services, and published a guide on how businesses can shrink their environmental impact. Nat ure sustains the economy. At least that is what Herman Daly, a senior economist at World Bank and teacher at University of Maryland’s School of Public Affairs, states in David Suzuki’s (and Holly Dressel’s) book, From Naked Ape to Superspecies. Daly states that, â€Å"’you sacrifice some of the natural system when you convert it into man-made things’† (Dressel and Suzuki ?). There needs to be a balance between the costs and benefits. In the past, there hasn’t been a focus on that balance. A cause of this unbalance and sacrificing lays with corporations. In Professor Brad Howard’s Journalism 190 class, the movie, The Corporation, was assigned for the students to watch. The Corporation is a Canadian documentary film that examines the modern-day corporation. The corporation is legally bound to put its bottom line ahead of everything, even the public good. In From Naked Ape to Superspecies, corporations are explained from a variety of sources. Jane Ann Morris, a corporate anthologist who works with a group called Program on Corporations, Law, and Democracy, stated that corporations have squeezed themselves into democracy, replacing the human persons. Even though the corporations are not people, they have been given  the same rights. The corporations are â€Å"reducing the rights of humans† (Suzuki and Dressel ?) and putting itself ahead of the people. According to the textbook in Brad’s class, The Problem of the Media by McChesney, â€Å"corporate societies† or â€Å"corporations† are corporate bodies that are legally authorized to act as a single individual. Brad assigned an academic journal for us to read, called Corporations, Democracy, and the Public Good by Stephen Barley. Barley states a thesis about the republic, â€Å"people are now separated from their representatives by an asteroid belt of organizations and among the most powerful of these are corporations and their trade associations† (Barley 203). In an interview with Lynette Thorstensen in Habitat Australia, David Suzuki stated that this situation with the corporations is not beyond the people’s grasp just yet. What is needed to occur are regulations and controls on the global level. An example that Suzuki provides is if a multinational company was found to be profiting through the dumping of wastes, the company should be fined to such a degree that continuing to behave like a pirate would cost more than the actual profit. Suzuki thinks that we need to keep the corporations exposed. David Suzuki is related to journalism and corporations, or at least his opinions are. Sustainable ecology is related to journalism and corporations. David Suzuki is a world leader in sustainable ecology. In order for the environment to be protected, the government needs to be involved. In order for the government to prosper, the environment needs to be cared for. As an environmental enthusiast, I had no clue that corporations played such a crucial role in the environment issues. Not only was I unaware about how the corporations were linked with environment issues, but I did not know that David Suzuki had ever addressed it. I think that’s something that Brad has tried to include in the class – corporations and their hiding. The reason I didn’t know corporations were involved in this issue, was because corporations influence the media and by their influence, they wish to be invisible in their link with th ese issues. Framing is what they call it. Framing is where a news media puts the shareholders first. If a corporation invests in a news media, the media shapes the information being shared and how we see topics/issues. So, I didn’t get to see the corporation’s influences, since they didn’t want the public to see them. Framing is a popular topic in Brad’s class. The media  frames issues all over the place. So once I discovered that issue among David Suzuki’s research, my mind was opened and aware. I think it all brings a new light to David Suzuki. Not only does David Suzuki care about the environment and protecting it, he cares about the impact of the government and corporations. David Suzuki †¦ any tips for the conclusion, mother?

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

A history of Latin America Essay Example for Free

A history of Latin America Essay It was during the European colonial expansion that Brazil fell under Portugal as a colony. Colonization in Brazil spanned the period between 1500 to year 1815. Portugal was interested in Brazil for a number of reasons that included the hope of getting minerals, raw materials as well as slave trade and labor to among other interests. The colonization of Brazil had some effect on the native way of life, with most of these effects having had a lasting effect to date. It’s worth noting that from the history of Brazil, France also had an interest in Brazil but could not stand up to Portugal which had taken the control of this part of the world through the signing of a treaty. The Portugal king known as king Manuel 1 who was reigning then wanted the colony to be ruled under a system of 15 hereditary captaincies- a fit that failed to work due to large-scale failure. The system gave way to royal enterprise in 1549. The following essay describes the causes and the effects of the Portuguese colonialism in Brazil. Causes of colonialism There are a number of things that preceded the Portuguese entry into and colonization of Brazil. Following the signing of the treaty of Tordelsillas in the year 1494 that facilitated the division of the world between Spain and Portugal, all land falling to the east was taken up by Portugal while Spain took up the land on the western side. In the year 1500, a navigator, Captain Pedro Alvares Cabral in charge of a fleet of 13 ships trailing the route taken by Vasco da Gama to India, landed in Brazil. He possessed this land for king Manuel 1 as an overseas colonial land for Portugal. His possession of the land made it a colonial land for Portugal (Sweet 2007p233). The Portuguese expressed their interest in Brazil due to the presence of raw materials that proved to be valuable for Portugal. One of the raw materials that Portugal got from Brazil includes the Brazilwood tree from which dark wood and red dye could be extracted. The Brazilwood was readily available in the Brazilian rainforest where it grew naturally. The red dye was exported to Europe where it was useful in staining luxurious textile for trading. The dark wood was sought for commercial purposes as well- specifically for sale within the European markets. The Portugal colonial system was also interested in growing sugar cane from Brazil for use in making of wine and for exporting to Portugal. An interest in other agricultural products of the nature of cash crops also interested the Portugal royal government that was reigning under the king Manuel 1 to take up Brazil as a colony. The cash crops drawn from Brazil included cotton and tobacco. These two cash crops were exported to Europe for sale in the European market. Portugal was interested in Brazil due to the prospect of getting slaves for labor and trade. The plantations in Europe required free labor that slaves could provide. Portugal marked Brazil as a potential area where for getting slaves for their plantations in Europe or for trading them. Even though the Portugal authorities had managed to transact some of the slaves with a Brazilian origin, the coming of the Jesuits in Brazil greatly led to the fall of the trade since they were opposed to the trade. This forced the Portugal authorities to embark on importing slaves from West Africa. At the same time, labor was greatly needed in the sugar plantations in Brazil. The natives provided this labor in exchange of scissors, axes, mirrors and knives while some were captured and forced to provide the labor as slaves (Morris 2006p34). Another reason why Portuguese had an interest in Brazil was because they were hoping to get minerals that they could use for their industries in Portugal or sell them in the European market. Though initially no minerals were found, some deposits of gold and later diamonds were found in the 18th century in the interior of Brazil by the bandeirantes. The area where gold deposits were found is known as the Minas Gerais mines. Deposits of diamond were found in 1729 in a village known as the Tujico village- the present day Diamantina. The French had expressed an interest n the land of Brazil as it was attracted to the Brazilwood and the prospect of mining some minerals from the land. This forced Portuguese to take up the land for establishing colonial rule in it before the French powers could take it over. Even though Portuguese had already possessed the land of Brazil, the heavy presence of the French military along the cost of Brazil forced the Portuguese to set the colonial powers and use military power to evacuate the French from the Brazilian coast (Leftwich 1999p156). Effects of Portuguese colonialism in Brazil The presence of the Portuguese colonial power in Brazil affected a number of the native life of the people in Brazil. Colonialism led to the widespread and adoption of the catholic faith in worship. This was a result of the coming of the Jesuits, who were led by the first governor, Tome de Sousa. The Jesuits made a great representation of the religious enterprise, setting missions within Brazil and actively converting the natives into the catholic faith. Another consequence of the Portuguese colonial powers in Brazil is the death of a great number of people due to wars that pervaded the colony. The natives were opposed to the colonial powers and therefore staged resistances that led to the death of many natives. An example of the native revolts is the Guarani war of the year 1756 where the native were fighting the Portuguese authorities as a protest against slave trade. The native guaranis were assisted by the Jesuits who also opposed slave trade and labor (Chasteen 2001 p251). The colonial era in Brazil also played a great role in the proliferation of the people of the African origin in Brazil. Since Brazil drew a lot of slaves from the West African region to work within the plantations in Brazil, a very large number of Africans settled within the Brazilian land after the slave trade was abolished since they had no way of going back to Africa even when they were set free (Freyre 2008 p458). There was a proliferation of infectious diseases that were brought by the colonialist from Europe to Brazil. The natives had no natural immunity against these diseases and this led to the death of a great number of natives from these foreign diseases. The colonial powers also led to the embrace of the sugar cane growing in agricultural sector for export. Since sugar cane had such a high demand within the European market, the expansion of the sugar cane sector drew great profits. This sector however received a blow and fell once the Dutch and the French started cultivating and exporting sugarcane to the European market. Since Antilles- the area where Dutch and the French produced the sugar was much closer to Europe, the sugar prices fell drastically towards the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century during which time the sugar industry on Brazil fell. The colonial powers within Brazil also led to the founding of the Rio de Janeiro city in the year 1565 by the governor general Estacio de Sa’. He established Rio de Janeiro as the capital of Brazil in the year 1763 from Salvador. At the same time, a number of changes took place with the cities in Brazil. The estados – states- in Brazil had been divided and separated so that they were headed by the city council prior to the year 1763. The city councils were composed of top figures within the Brazilian land including the merchants, land owners and business men. Since Brazil was to big to be administered by the royal government, there arose a need to divide this area into smaller estates. The states of Brasil, Maranhao, and Grao-para were unified into Brazilian viceroyalty in the year 1763 and Rio de Janeiro was set as the capital of these cities. This helped to destroy the divisions that were created in the early days of the colonial invasion (Freyre 2008 p457). There was the creation of a number of towns in south Brazil. Some of the towns created include Colonia de Sacramento, Alores islands, and Porto Alegre among other towns. As essay shows, there are a number of major changes that took place with the expansion of the Portuguese power in Brazil. The native Brazilians abandoned their cultural way of life and adopted the life that the Portuguese were living in terms of dress code, food eaten, and the religion adopted (Keller 2006p517). Conclusion Expansion of the European powers into the rest of the world during the colonial era led to major changes and experiences into the areas that these countries set their colonial power. In the case of Brazil, changes that took place were experienced over the whole range of the living including their social living, political life and religion among other areas. The effect of the colonial powers is still felt in Brazil to the present day. References Chasteen J (2001) Born in blood and fire: a concise history of Latin America, Norton p251 Freyre G (2008) The masters and the slaves (Casa-grande senzala) Brazilian civilization, University of Texas p457, 458 Keller (2006) Colonization study, founding of new societies. Ginn Company p517 Leftwich A (1999) Redefining politics; populace, property, and power, Taylor Francis p156 Morris H (2006) History of Colonialism from the Earliest Times Present Day, University of Michigan p34 Sweet W (2007) A history of Latin America. The Abingdon Press p233

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Stress In The Workplace Psychology Essay

The Stress In The Workplace Psychology Essay Stress is a common daily experience for many people, increasingly in the workplace. Employees complain that there are many elements that produce stress in the workplace; for example, relationships with other employees, occupational demands and lack of control work (Cooper, Dewe and ODriscoll 2001). A survey of over a million employees in the UK found that over fifty percent of them experienced health problems due to stress. More and more employees appear to be suffering from ill health, often attributed to stress. Some psychologists claim that job stress affects more than sixty percent of all workplaces in the UK (Cartwright 2000). Stress is a significant and increasing problem in many countries (Chmiel 2008). Many researchers believe that there are three main types of stress (Copper and Payne 1988): stress as a reaction; stress as a stimulus; and stress as an intermediary procedure between both reaction and stimulus. Thus, stress is a psychological or physiological response when peo ple face a difficulty. Currently, some theories suggest that stress is a negative sentimental state which is due to the reaction between people and their surroundings (Arnold et al. 2010). However, stress may also have a positive effect on employees. This essay will focus on the definition of stress and two causes of stress work-related causes and individual personality causes in the workplace. Then evaluate the organizational techniques and individual techniques of reducing stress. The first step in solving any problem is to be beginning by understanding the issue. The definition of stress is argued by many psychologists. Since 1929, different researchers have developed various definitions of stress. Some researchers believe that the definition should be impartial, while others suggest that it could depend on individual opinions (Furnham 2005). According to the early studies, Selye defines stress as the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it (1956 ¼Ã…’pp.27-29). Selyes definition concerns the physiological reaction instead of incorporating both psychological and physiological responses. A few years later, Cox (1978) illustrates that stress can be explained into three meanings: reaction-based, stimulus-based and interactive. Moreover, this theory is developed by other psychologists. Semmer (2003) claims that stress can be divided into stimulus, response and the intercede course between response and stimulus. Hence, Semmers definition is the most popular definition in sphere of learning. People use his definition to deeply understand stress. At present, stress is regarded as a public problem for most of employees. People try to find the roots of stress, especially in workplace. Some psychologists say that stressors such as workload, work schedule and conflict at work are the main sources of stress in the workplace (Landy Conte 2004). Furnham (2005) divides the main stressors into two types of cause: work-related causes and individual personality causes. He separates these stressors from the internal cause (personality) and external cause (environment). Currently, several studies prove that these two main causes which can produce stress in workplace. One of causes is work-related cause. Regarding work-related causes of stress, it includes job requirements, job role, work overload, work underload, organizational change, and other stressors. Firstly, Job requirements are the most significant factor which cause stress in the workplace. There are some demands which can make a job more and more stressful for instance, risk and danger. Police officers, firefighters, and other people in occupations where they often have to face physical threats always need to reduce the stress (Arnold et al. 2010). Secondly, Role-stressors include role conflict and role ambiguity (Woods West 2010). It affects the work settings and social support. Role ambiguity can also be a source of stress if a job description is too vague, and therefore employees are unsure of what duties they have in the office. Thirdly, Work overload and underload also influence emp loyee physical and mental health. Work overload means that there is too much work or work that is too difficult for an employee to complete. On the other hand, work underload means work is too simple to being a challenge for employees (Schultz Schultz 2002). Both work overload and work underload can lead to stress. The more time required completing a task, the lower employees level of happiness, and as a result, it impacts employees health and state of mind. The next factor is organizational change. Usually, it is difficult for employees to find their positions when the situation or environment changes. In that instance, not only the organization changes but also the demands of the organization changes, which in turn can make employees feel stressed. Finally, there are additional stressors in workplace, such as negative leadership and career development. Negative leadership gives employees pressure when they are provided negative feedback. Moreover, most of employees worry about th eir career development. In an employees career development, worrying over promotion and performance appraisals can be a significant factor of stress. Consequently, Work-related causes are external causes, which are objective and hard to change. The other main cause is individual personality causes. In this case, stress is influenced by individual factors, such as personality types, subjective opinions, and intelligence (Furnham 2006). There are many unique elements which can produce stress. Furthermore, peoples tendency to pay attention to the negative sides of an event is also a source of stress for employees. An individuals personality is an internal cause which can change by employees. Thus, these two causes are the common reasons of producing stress. Most employees are bothered by work-related causes, and are suffering from the negative effects of stress for a long time. As the cause of stress already discussed indicate, most researchers assert that stress is a growing problem in many countries one that has the potential to increase in the future (Chimel 2008). In general, stress tends to have negative consequences. Nevertheless, there are also some positive effects of stress in workplace. While, Selye (1956) believes that there are two kinds of stress distress and eustress. Distress is negative stress which can affect peoples health. Eustress is positive stress which can motivate people to reach a goal. Distress expresses the negative consequences of stress. These negative consequences can be separated into three main types: behavioral, psychological, and physiological (Woods West 2010). Initially, for behavior outcomes, people could make more mistakes during the learning and understanding processes. For example, fast food delivery workers can get into accidents more easily when there are too many deliveries to make (Landy Conte 2004). This is because they cannot pay more attention to the situation on the road when they are worried about how they can make deliveries on time. That is very dangerous for workers. Then, the psychological consequences of stress are also serious. Burnout, a common psychology consequence of stress, is a prominent negative effect of stress especially in caring careers nursing and teaching (Landy Conte 2004). For instance, a job which has massive workload and high work demands, usually leads to burnout. Normally, burnout will affect individual achievement. Employees who have low individual achievement will have difficulties facing challenge or difficulties well. It is clear that the high workload and job demands will increase the risk of burnout. In the meantime, some physiological changes result from stress as well. Some early studies reported that stress not only causes heart disease and headaches but also increases blood pressure and heart rate (Arnold et al. 2010). It is hazardous for employees that stress can threaten their life. The negative consequences of stress are easy to uncover, although, many articles have shown that stress can also have a positive influence in workplace. Selye (1956) suggests that a suitable amount of stress can help employee to develop their full potential. Because of eustress, they are good at receiving and acting on positive feedback during work time and they continue to find new challenges in their career development. Consequently, employees can get their goal soon. Stress can encourage employees to be successful in workplace. Nevertheless, most of the time, people spend lots of time studying the negative side of stress instead of the positive. The negative consequences of stress are the main problems that mostly disturb employees in workplace. Because of the negative consequence of stress, nowadays, there are many methods that can reduce or manage stress in the workplace. Some psychologists say that people can use organizational techniques and individual techniques to reduce stress in the workplace. Organizational techniques include changing the organizational climate and providing employee assistance procedure. The organization should make sure that employees are able to adapt to change (Cooper Locke 2000). It is important that employees engage in the decisions leading to change in the workplace. Participation could assist employees in adapting more easily to changes. Employees have a right to express their ideas and opinions. It can help employees to reduce or prevent the stress. Providing employees with assistance procedures means that organizations define employee roles and provide programs about stress management. In order to reduce stress which due to role ambiguity, organizations should give employees a clear job d escription before they start to work. It is an effective way to reduce employees stress. Moreover, appropriate job demands can prevent and reduce work overload and underload. Anther effective way to help employees reduce stress is by providing stress management programs. For example, a survey of 130 workers in Netherlands who engage in a stress management training program reported that it is an effective solution for reducing psychology stress. More importantly, the effects of this program lasted for six months (Schultz Schultz 2002). Accordingly, training programs could be successful in helping employees reduce stress levels in the workplace. On the other hand, Individual techniques for reducing and limiting stress are also important for employees. Since the 1930s, relaxation training has been used as an effective solution for reducing stress. The purpose of this kind of training is decrease the blood pressure. That way, employees begin to feel relaxed more quickly. In addition to the methods already described, biofeedback is another popular technique for reducing stress. Through the feedback of heart rate or blood pressure, people are taught to manage their internal state. Biofeedback can also be used to control brain waves. Keeping calm is an essential element of reducing stress. As a consequence, both organizational techniques and individual techniques are effective ways for helping employees to reduce stress. However, in fact, the organizational techniques are easier than individual techniques to enforce in a company. In conclusion, stress, an increasingly public problem, bothers most employees in modern society. Some psychologists claim that stress is a reaction and stimulus. It is a kind of psychological or physiological response shown when people face challenges or a threatening situation. There are internal causes individual personality and external causes work-related causes. Work-related cause is the main cause for producing stress in workplace. Selye (1956) demonstrates that eustress is one kind of positive stress. Eustress can motivate employees to improve themselves and get their goal. Other researchers, however, say that stress only has negative effects on employees, such as disease and burnout. In accordance with the negative effects of stress, the measures of reducing stress are divided into two categories: organizational techniques and individual techniques. These techniques deal with the stress due to work-related causes and individual personality causes. In the workplace, not only the employees but also the organizations leaders should be concerned about reducing stress.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Manners, Wealth and Status in Rebecca Rushs Novel Kelroy :: Rebecca Rush Kelroy Essays

Manners, Wealth and Status in Rebecca Rush's Novel Kelroy "A novel of manners" this is how the novel Kelroy is described by Kathryn Derounian in her article "Lost in the Crowd: Rebecca Rush's Kelroy (1812)." Throughout the novel, characters such as; Mrs. Hammond, Mr. Manley, Mr. Kelroy, and especially the Gurnet family, show how people are treated differently regarding their wealth, status and mannerisms. Kelroy shows us these relationships and how one is viewed solely on the way in which they present themselves. Culture, at the time Kelroy was written, was much different than culture today. Most women in the early eighteenth century served an ornamental function rather than a domestic function. Most of the women in Kelroy were the ornamental type. The men in the eighteenth century married, not for someone to cook and clean for them, but to have someone pretty and proper to attend social gatherings with. Rush shows some of this culture when she describes Lucy and Emily at a gathering hosted by Mrs. Hammond: The two sisters were dressed exactly alike in white satin and silver. Their fans, gloves and shoes were also white; and the delicacy of their complexions, contrasted with the simple elegance of their attire, and heightened by the glow of youthful animation, rendered them lovely beyond description. (Rush 15) This shows the importance of appearance in this time period. It was typical for wealthy women to dress so elegantly at parties or other social events. This description of attire also shows, to some extent, the practice Mrs. Hammond used in the exaggerated display of her daughters. Not only did the young ladies need to dress elegantly to obtain a wealthy husband, they also had to have appropriate manners. Mrs. Hammond, after the death of her husband, devoted her life to educating her daughters in how they are to properly conduct themselves. Her reasoning for this was a typical one: to make others believe they were an established family of wealth. Mr. Marney's story is a bit different although his goal was similar.

How childhood history and culture affects how we live as adults Essay

Childhood history has a lot to do with how we live as adults because certain childhood events could trigger something that would last a life time. Take for example if a child fails at something and the parent does nothing to help the child, the child will grow up thinking that failing is alright and that he or she will have a hard time in life with their job or in school or life in general. Many events from a persons’ life can stick with the person throughout their life like a thorn in the side. The event will every so often reappear in the persons mind when some event in the present triggers a familiarity with the past event and the person could go in to a state of worry or even worse shock. In this occurrence it could immobilize the person and result in a lackluster in th...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Comparison Between The Crucible by Arthur Miller and Vinegar Tom by C.

Comparison Between The Crucible by Arthur Miller and Vinegar Tom by C. Churchill We are currently performing a piece of drama called 'The Crucible' and have studied a play called 'Vinegar Tom'. 'The Crucible' was written by Arthur Miller in 1953 and was set in Salem, Massachusetts USA in 1692. 'Vinegar Tom' was written in the 1970's and was set in the 17th century. Although 'Vinegar Tom' was written about the 17th century, the ideas parallel those of the issues of the 1970's. The issue was feminism. Although women were beginning to work the same jobs as men, their wages were drastically different, with men being paid a lot more for the same job. More women started to go to university in order to gain the qualifications that would enable them to do the jobs that men did. Some parts of the play reflect the feminist issues that were happening at the time the story was written. In 'The Crucible' the issues surrounding the time of when the play was written was McCarthyism. Arthur Miller was interested not only in the Salem witch trials, but also the more current affairs of the USA. The opposing look on communism sparked a massive conspiracy theory that set neighbours, friends and family against each other. People were accused of being communists, and, in order to free their name and the risk of being blacklisted, they had to give the names of other that were communists. This set off a long chain of innocent people that were accused by people trying to free t...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Hills Like White Elephants

Everyday people make decisions that affect their future lives. Do people make the right decisions? What makes a decision a right one? What may be right to some, may be wrong to others. There are no right or wrong decisions but those that people choose and believe to be right varying from each individual. In Hemingway's realistic story, Hills Like White Elephants, Jig attempts to make a crucial change in her life by making the right decision, but is unable to because of her weak characteristic flaws. Hills Like White Elephants†, by Ernest Hemingway, is a short story published in 1927, which is set at a train station in Spain. In this story the reader eavesdrops on a conversation held by â€Å"the American and the girl with him†. Most of the story is predominately dialogue between the two characters. During this conversation, the reader may determine that the couple is at a critical point in their lives when they must make a life-or-death decision on whether the woman should have an abortion. Jig is indecisive about her decision. Even though she realizes the possibilities, she has difficulties letting go of old habits, has a low self-esteem that leads to her being submissive, and puts up a frail fight by hiding her feelings behind her sarcastic comments. Jig faces an immense decision that will change her future. She must choose between the old and the new lifestyle. It is hard for her to let go of old habits that consists of taking no responsibility and the sole intention of seeking pleasure. She must go from a young worry free rebel to a stable adult taking responsibility. It's a hard process since there are three steps to changing: realization, doing the deed, and committing to the change. She definitely realizes she needs to change, but only goes that far. The climax of the story appears when Jig is agitated by their irritating conversation and their romantic relationship. She begins to question about their uncertain future and his true feelings for her. She seems persuaded by the American when she comments on her willingness to do the operation despite her wants and needs because â€Å"she doesn’t care† about herself. At the same time, Jig begins to realize that life may not turn out the way she had planned. She likes to try new things, like the drink, but is often disappointed in the end. She indicates that it is too late for him to make things better. The American believes that Jig is being reasonable for not wanting to having the â€Å"simple† operation done so they can â€Å"be all right and be happyâ€Å" again. He informs her that he has â€Å"known lots of people that have done it† in order to convince her to have the â€Å"awfully simple† operation. He says that the pregnancy is â€Å"the only thing that bothers us. It's the only thing that's made us unhappy. † He sees the whole issue as â€Å"simple† because he does not understand the real problem that is causing the misery. When he finally leaves Jig to get their bags for the train, he observes that the other people are â€Å"waiting reasonably for their train† because in his mind, Jig is the one to blame their troubles because she is â€Å"unreasonably waiting† for a future that he cannot imagine having with her. Ironically, he is unreasonable one because he is the one causing the problems by wanting the abortion. Jig realizes that their withering relationship is not the result of her pregnancy but the result of their failure to understand each other. She realizes that they are incompatible as a couple to have a family together. Even if she does have the abortion, she can no longer stay with him because he can never give her what she longs for. Hemingway leaves the reader wondering about their final destination. He chooses the setting in the valley of the Ebro to symbolize the couple’s situation and options in life. They are on the sunless and barren side of the mountain where they can only see hills that looks like white elephants. At the end of the story, the American remarks â€Å"I'd better take the bags over to the other side of the station,† the side where there is growth and life. The train is representative of two different directions if life, however is unclear whether this signifies that the man has changed his mind about the abortion, or that Jig has decided to go through with the operation and leave him so they have to live separate lives. Jig has desires to change and to live a different life because she is aware of it. She is ready and willing to experience a different life while her lover is not. If so many women were to take that to heart. You should not have to chose someone else’s happiness over your own. We set our paths and no one should think that they have te right to make your own life decisions. If we make a mistake it is our mistake. Life is to precious to waste. Hills Like White Elephants Everyday people make decisions that affect their future lives. Do people make the right decisions? What makes a decision a right one? What may be right to some, may be wrong to others. There are no right or wrong decisions but those that people choose and believe to be right varying from each individual. In Hemingway's realistic story, Hills Like White Elephants, Jig attempts to make a crucial change in her life by making the right decision, but is unable to because of her weak characteristic flaws. Hills Like White Elephants†, by Ernest Hemingway, is a short story published in 1927, which is set at a train station in Spain. In this story the reader eavesdrops on a conversation held by â€Å"the American and the girl with him†. Most of the story is predominately dialogue between the two characters. During this conversation, the reader may determine that the couple is at a critical point in their lives when they must make a life-or-death decision on whether the woman should have an abortion. Jig is indecisive about her decision. Even though she realizes the possibilities, she has difficulties letting go of old habits, has a low self-esteem that leads to her being submissive, and puts up a frail fight by hiding her feelings behind her sarcastic comments. Jig faces an immense decision that will change her future. She must choose between the old and the new lifestyle. It is hard for her to let go of old habits that consists of taking no responsibility and the sole intention of seeking pleasure. She must go from a young worry free rebel to a stable adult taking responsibility. It's a hard process since there are three steps to changing: realization, doing the deed, and committing to the change. She definitely realizes she needs to change, but only goes that far. The climax of the story appears when Jig is agitated by their irritating conversation and their romantic relationship. She begins to question about their uncertain future and his true feelings for her. She seems persuaded by the American when she comments on her willingness to do the operation despite her wants and needs because â€Å"she doesn’t care† about herself. At the same time, Jig begins to realize that life may not turn out the way she had planned. She likes to try new things, like the drink, but is often disappointed in the end. She indicates that it is too late for him to make things better. The American believes that Jig is being reasonable for not wanting to having the â€Å"simple† operation done so they can â€Å"be all right and be happyâ€Å" again. He informs her that he has â€Å"known lots of people that have done it† in order to convince her to have the â€Å"awfully simple† operation. He says that the pregnancy is â€Å"the only thing that bothers us. It's the only thing that's made us unhappy. † He sees the whole issue as â€Å"simple† because he does not understand the real problem that is causing the misery. When he finally leaves Jig to get their bags for the train, he observes that the other people are â€Å"waiting reasonably for their train† because in his mind, Jig is the one to blame their troubles because she is â€Å"unreasonably waiting† for a future that he cannot imagine having with her. Ironically, he is unreasonable one because he is the one causing the problems by wanting the abortion. Jig realizes that their withering relationship is not the result of her pregnancy but the result of their failure to understand each other. She realizes that they are incompatible as a couple to have a family together. Even if she does have the abortion, she can no longer stay with him because he can never give her what she longs for. Hemingway leaves the reader wondering about their final destination. He chooses the setting in the valley of the Ebro to symbolize the couple’s situation and options in life. They are on the sunless and barren side of the mountain where they can only see hills that looks like white elephants. At the end of the story, the American remarks â€Å"I'd better take the bags over to the other side of the station,† the side where there is growth and life. The train is representative of two different directions if life, however is unclear whether this signifies that the man has changed his mind about the abortion, or that Jig has decided to go through with the operation and leave him so they have to live separate lives. Jig has desires to change and to live a different life because she is aware of it. She is ready and willing to experience a different life while her lover is not. If so many women were to take that to heart. You should not have to chose someone else’s happiness over your own. We set our paths and no one should think that they have te right to make your own life decisions. If we make a mistake it is our mistake. Life is to precious to waste.